Traditionally, the predominant theory of human behavior was that people more or less made decisions rationally. For centuries, most approaches to changing behavior relied considerably on education or some version of a carrot or stick. But if these tools were sufficient to change behavior, then no one would smoke, everyone would wear their seat belt when in a car, and those aiming to lose weight would easily skip that tempting dessert. Behavioral economics is a relatively new field that combines insights from psychology and economics to make use of the predictable errors in our judgment—the errors that lead us to overeat when we want to lose weight, fail to save enough for retirement, not take our medications as prescribed, or not prescribe medications according to established guidelines. In this session, a leading expert in this field will examine concepts of behavioral economics that challenge the traditional theory of human behavior and discuss how to adjust the model to better drive positive health behavior change.